Building Inclusive Literacy Programs Using Peers


Turn and Talk Task Analysis

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In many general education classrooms, teachers use “turn and talks” to facilitate engagement during literacy lessons. In project IMPACT, we task analyzed the turn and talk activity into five steps (a) listen to peer's question, (b) answer the question, (c) ask peer a question, (d) listen to peer's answer, and (e) agree or disagree with peer's answer (emit a thumbs up or down) and developed a visual support (i.e., flipbook) for students to use during lessons. 

Flipbook Version (video)

The flipbook helps students focus on just one step at a time. Once the step is completed, student can flip the page to direct them to the next step. Peers used the flipbook and the system of least prompts to support their peer with ESN’s engagement in the turn and talk activity.

List Version (video)
With the TA organized in a list, the students are able to go down the list and check off steps as they are completed. The student can easily see where finished is. Easier to cross off a step(s) if shorter response time is allowed. Tutors in middles school preferred this version which may indicate it is more age-appropriate. ​

Lesson Fidelity Sheet

The Phase 3 Fidelity form can be used to track all lesson plan and planning components addressed by the teaching pair. Coaches can use this form to identify areas in need of discussion (e.g., strengths and weaknesses) during coaching sessions.
This Phase also tracks student interactions. Descriptions of each 'action' are in a key on the 2nd-3rd pages.

​Coaching Educators